Because of the local nature of water management issues, Occidental currently reports on the performance of specific operations rather than companywide aggregate metrics. Water withdrawals and discharges are undertaken according to state and local regulations. To best illustrate Occidental's water management, Occidental reports performance metrics on several of its diverse operations, each with its own unique circumstances.
We report on our major global operations, including conventional and non-conventional production. For non-conventional production, additional context is available on Occidental's wastewater management practices under the
Hydraulic Fracturing section. In 2013, the most recent year of data, average annual water withdrawals from all sources (surface and ground freshwater, municipal supplies, produced and recycled wastewater) of Occidental's major hydraulic fracturing basins range from .36 MM bbl (million barrels) in South Texas to 7 MM bbl in the Permian. Internationally, our operations reflect those that handle larger quantities of produced saline water or freshwater, some in arid climates, and a variety of regulatory and social contexts. There are four major areas of water management on which the oil and gas metrics focus.